What do you know about CFS? Live better and be healthier with these quick nutritional tips from the experts. Normal urine is clear and has a straw-yellow color. While the odor of urine can vary somewhat, in most cases, it does not have a strong smell. Health concerns on your mind? Urinary Incontinence in Women: Loss of Bladder Control?
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Bladder infection is an infection of the bladder, usually caused by bacteria or, rarely, by Candida. Dehydration is the excessive loss of body water. Heat rash is a skin irritation caused by excessive sweating. Hyperglycemia or high blood sugar is a serious health problem for diabetics. PKU disorder increases the levels of phenylalanine in the blood. Are We Close to a Cure for Cancer?
How Could You Live Better With Migraine? This website is certified by Health On the Net Foundation. The word cystitis means inflammation of the urinary bladder although it has often come to be used to describe the symptoms caused by a urinary infection. In fact this is not far from being correct since the most common cause of an inflamed bladder is an infection of the urine within the bladder but there are other causes and these are described below. Cystitis caused by infection is extremely common, and can occur at any age in both sexes. However, it is fifty times more common in women than in men, and is commonest amongst sexually active women. What are the causes of cystitis?
This is about 20 centimeters long in men, and only 4 centimeters long in women, so the germs have a shorter distance to travel and cause infection more easily. Sexual intercourse can cause germs to enter the urethra in spite of good personal hygiene, though poor personal hygiene increases the risk. Infection of the urine in pregnancy is more common than in a non-pregnant woman. For this reason it is usual for pregnant women to have their urine routinely tested for evidence of infection. If there is infection present it is usually quickly treated. Since urine infections are unusual in men they should be taken seriously.
A similar situation to men exists with children i. A urinary infection in a child can sometimes indicate an abnormality of the urinary tract. This can eventually lead to scarring and damage to the kidneys. Urine created from the kidneys passes down the ureters to the bladder where it is stored before it is passed via the urethra, the tube down the middle of the penis in men or which leads into the lower part of the vagina in women. In cystitis caused by an infection the bacteria are confined to the bladder causing some or all of the symptoms described below. However, occasionally the infection can spread up the ureters to the kidneys. This is called pyelonephritis and can affect one or both kidneys.
The significance of pyelonephritis is that, whereas cystitis is generally at worst a distressing condition, pyelonephritis can be a serious illness. If left untreated pyelonephritis can lead to septicaemia where the infection spreads into the bloodstream requiring treatment with strong antibiotics often administered directly into the veins in hospital. Infection elsewhere in the body can occasionally spread to the bladder. Stress and general illness lower resistance to infection and increase the risk of getting cystitis. A kidney stone can act as a reservoir for infection. Antibiotics do not penetrate a stone, so the germs survive to cause another urine infection. Its cause is not fully understood at present, and there is no set way to treat it. More conclusive research is awaited. In children the usual symptoms of cystitis are not always present so diagnosis of a urine infection can be difficult to make. In children a urinary infection can cause the symptoms listed above but may only result in the child being generally unwell with a temperature. A clue may be provided if the child in question starts to wet the bed or become incontinent when they have previously had good bladder control or the parent may notice that the child’s urine smells offensive. Diagnosing urine infections in babies is even more difficult since the only symptoms may be a persistent temperature and the baby being generally unwell and off its feeds. For this reason, although urine infections in babies are unusual, parents and doctors need to be alert to the possibility that an unwell child with no obvious cause for its illness may have an infection in the urine. Sending a sample of urine to the laboratory for analysis will enable the doctor to exclude this as a possibility.